State Key Laboratory of Lake Science & Environments
The lab was founded on the previous framework of the CAS-run Open Laboratory of Lake Sedimentation & Environment with an objective to explore the formative process of a lacustrine system, its pattern and interaction between nature and man-made factors. To meet the demands posed by the national authorities for ensuring the lake water security, and maintaining the ecological safety of a given region as well as by the disciplinary needs of the contemporary limnology, the new lab places its research focus at the following four fields: the formation & evolution of freshwater lakes, their hydrological and water resources, environmental pollution, ecological rehabilitation and interaction & mutual regulation between lakes and catchments. Based on these, the lab aims to reveal the evolutionary laws which govern lacustrine environment, develop principles & technology for rehabilitation or remedy of the depleted limnetic ecosystems and establish theories and methods for comprehensive management of these ecosystems.
During the coming five years, the lab has planned to carry out some original studies at the following R&D orientations: recordings on the evolutionary changes sampled from sediment cores; lake water’s dynamic characteristics and their influence on mass transfer; the impacts of a hydrological system’s dynamic process on nutrient organisms’ effectiveness; a limnetic ecosystem’s responding system to the environmental stress and the influence imposed by human activities and climatic changes on the water resources in catchments; etc.
The lab boasts an R&D contingent noted for its competence and rational structure. In its permanent staff of 73, 28 are research professors (including 21 doctorate mentors) and 22 are younger than 45 in age. All of its research bones either are holders of doctorate degrees or have the personal experiences to study or work abroad. At present, it has five researchers working as chief scientists for R&D projects listed in the National 863 Program for Basic Research, two winners of the State Foundation for Outstanding Youngsters, four chief scientists in charge of the key R&D projects funded by the State allocations, five candidates chosen by the CAS-hostedHundred TalentsProgram and two chief scientists held responsible for project in the CAS-run Knowledge Innovation Program.
Currently, the lab’s staff composition includes seven post-doctorate students, 67 doctorate students, 90 MS students and 24 guest researchers.
The overall target set by the lab is to build itself into an R&D hub ranking in the advanced frontline of the international community, a national-level platform for monitoring and field exploration of freshwater bodies and their environment. In a bid to raise the R&D scholarship and originality in this field, the lab strives to bring up young research professionals with competitiveness in the international arena. Through developing a theoretical system, the lab plans to provide methods and technical systems for improving the lake water’s environmental quality, and to ensure the safety of the water resources so that our country’s academic status in this aspect might be updated. The final goal for the lab is to construct itself into an internationally top-ranking national R&D center for lake sciences and environment, a talent pool as well as an incubator and a base for academic communication.
The current director of the lab: Prof. SHEN Ji
The director of its academic committee: CAS member XU Guanhua
Affiliation unit: Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, the CAS
Division of Lake Hydrology and Environmental Chemistry
Research Focus: Physical and chemical processes for providing substantial understanding of the changes of physical and chemical parameters and how they are controlled. We are trying to disclose the mechanism and driving force of the key processes in lake environment by integrated investigation into the physical, chemical and biological processes in lake environment. The aim is to regulate and well manage lake water quality by developing nutrient cycling model and early warning system of water quality and algal bloom.
People: 4 professors, 6 associate professors, 5 assistant professors, 1 senior engineer, 2 contract researchers, 2 postdoctoral researcher, 19 PhD students and 14 master students.
Physical limnology: to provide the physical parameters for the limnological theory development, water quality improvement and lake ecosystem restoration by physical model experiment and field measurements of water temperature, underwater light, waves, currents and meteorology.
Environmental chemistry: to study the transport, transform and cycling of chemical materials in lakes and their catchment based on the chemistry theory aiming at solving the lake environment problems.
Interface Environmental chemistry: To disclose the source and changing trend of main chemical materials (i.e. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus) and other materials (heavy metals and toxic materials) by studying the cycle, transport and transform of these materials at the sediment-water and air-water interfaces. These two interfaces are very unstable disturbed by hydrodynamic and biological processes. The focus is to disclose the difference between stable interface and unstable interface and the material cycling affected by different environmental conditions.
To study waves, currents and materials (nutrients, sediment and contaminants), energy transfer and develop numerical model simulating underwater light, water temperature, waves, currents and nutrient concentrations. The focus is to model hydrodynamics, sediment resuspension, and water quality for providing scientific information for lake environment protection and resotation.
Links: Group of the Dynamics of Lake Ecosystem. Website: http://www.86882192.cn/aboutus.html.
Division of Lake Sediment and Environmental Evolution
Lab of Lake Sedimentolog is former Key Lab of Lake Sediment and Environment, the Chinese Academy of Sciences. There are 22 permanent staffs in the Lab, which 81% obtained the Ph Degrees. Currently there are 11 research professors, 6 associated research professors, and 3 engineers. Ten peoples completed the post-doctorial studies, currently 30 Ph.D. and MAS students in the Lab.
The Lab buildings own 3000 m2 in area, including lab rooms and office rooms. The Lab has been approved by the international laboratory standard of ISO/IEC17025 and operates the standard system since 2004.
The Lab owns 30 large-type instruments and equipments that the price of each item is over 100,000 Yuan. Major facilities of Element Geochemistry, Environmental Magnetism, Granulametry, Isotope Geochemistry, Organic Geochemistry, Atomic Spectrum, Chronology (14C, 210Pb and 137Cs dating), Water Chemistry, SIG Workstation are used in field investigating, water monitoring, lake depth measuring, and dynamic simulating.
Major scientific and technological programs of the Lab are resourced from the CAS and the national and provincial governments with more than 50 programs, and financial 4,000,000 Yuan in 2008. The research focuses on the sediment and environment from different kinds of lakes, recognizing temporal-spatial patterns of lake environment in China and its procession and dynamics, distinguishing the natural changes and human activities and estimating the trend and variability in the future, in order to provide scientific basis for control and rehabilitation of lakes and the environments, and for national and regional sustainable development.
We have hold several international academic conferences and workshops in China and were key members to participated the international meetings in oversees of USA, UK, Germany, Australia. Research products have been published in more than 1000 papers and 10 monographs, of 150 papers polished in international SCI journals. These products have been awarded the first order award of Natural Science of CAS in 1999, the second order awards of Natural Science of China in 2007, and of Jiangsu Province in 2007 respectively.
Division of Lake Biology and Ecology
Department of Biology and Ecology of Freshwater lake comprises 26 faculties, including 8 professors, 6 associate professors and 11 assistant professors.
Research Directions:The mechanism of eutrophication and the water bloom in different stage, as well as the prediction of algal bloom occurrence. Studies of the techniques and theories related to lake restoration.Eutrophication risk and ecotoxicology assessment.The impact of Climate change on the lake ecosystem structure and function. Current major projects: National Basic Research Program of China “The mechanism of the development process and catastrophic outbreak of cyanobacterial bloom, as well as its prevention and management”.National ministry of science and technology support programs “Remote monitoring of water quality, water bloom forecast and the establishment of alarm system in the water source regions” and “The research and its demonstration project on emerging measurement techniques for guarantee drinking water quality during the occurrence of water bloom ”.Key Projects of National Science and Technology Pillar Programs “Water pollution and treatment in Lake Chaohu, comprehensive control techniques for eutrophication, and the construction of demonstration sites for ecological engineering”.Awards
“Four-phase theory about the development of cyanobacterial bloom and the forecast of algal bloom in Lake Taihu” won the second prize for scientific technological progress of Jiangsu province.
Division of Lake-catchment Interaction and Manipulation
Lake is the “sink” in its watershed, and also the amplifier and recorder of eco-environmental changes of the watershed, which is sensitive to such eco-environmental changes. To take lake and its watershed as a whole research object is the inevitable development trend of lake science. To promote research in the field of catchment processes and regulation, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, set up the new catchment processes and regulation laboratory in Year 2007. The laboratory is the innovative research unit which our institute focused on at the 3rd stage, mainly engaged in the research on lake-watershed interaction, material transport process, flux and environmental effects of lake-watershed system, as well as effects and regulation of watershed urbanization and land use/cover change.
Recently, with China’s rapid economic development and sharp increase of population, river/groundwater pollution, lake eutrophication and other water environment problems become increasingly serious. To effectively curb the further deterioration of water environment, and to provide practical methods and techniques to restore the water environment, there is a series of scientific problems for further research, including: (1) formation and evolution of pollution sources, especially quantitative research on non-point source; (2) path, migration, transfer and attribution of pollutants (including sediment) entering into lake (water body) in lake (water body); and, (3) interaction of lake and watershed, as well as response mechanism of lake basin runoff and material flux to climate change and human activities.
Our laboratory has a total of 11 staff consisting of 8 enlisted researchers, 1 support staff and 2 project personnel), of which there are 2 research fellows, 3 associate research fellows and 3 assistant research fellows. In the past five years, our laboratory has increased to 21 researchers, has improved the structure of research team, has strengthened the research team-building, and has increased the proportion of high-level researchers, with 3 ~ 4 additional research fellows and 1 ~ 2 research fellows introduced in accordance with the "Hundred Talents" program. We have always focused on training young scientific and technical personnel, have established a group of young scientists, where young scientists can play their respective strengths and achieve innovative results through unity and cooperation, have initially formed a high-level research team with strategic foresight, have actively sought for related research projects, have enhanced the project integration and extraction of research results, have increased SCI output of high-level research papers, have enhanced the academic influence, and have formed our discipline advantages of influential outcomes in lake watershed system.
Our laboratory’s overall goal is to develop into a research institution at world-advanced level in the interaction of lakes and watersheds within five years, and to develop a high level research echelon in relevant fields. The laboratory will focus on two themes: A. a comprehensive simulation of watershed physical (hydrological process and material transfer), chemical (geochemistry and biochemistry) and biological processes; and B. relevant scientific research on interaction of river - lake (reservoir) and comprehensive simulation of hydrodynamics, and at the same time, we will pay attention to the research on new mechanism and new process, and focus on coupled modeling and its application; we will emphasize on multidisciplinary (direction) cross-cutting research, and organize research on solving major ecological environmental problems (eco-environmental impacts of major water conservancy projects and large water pollution problems), basic research problems and breakthrough research problems. The research on material production, transfer, transformation and control of lake-watershed system has become hot and key spots in academic research of the laboratory recently.
The catchment processes and regulation laboratory currently assumes a series of research projects, such as special state projects of “National Lakes Survey”, national “Eleventh Five-Year” science and technology support projects, significant directional project of “Three Gorges” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, key directional projects and programs of the Knowledge Innovation Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and research projects of the National Natural Science Foundation, etc.
Division of Catchment Resources Environment and Regional Development
Research Objectives and Directions:
In view of potential problems during the coordinated development of economy, resources and environment in the economically developed areas, aim at regional sustainable development goals, we will establish the relationship model between the economic development, resources and environment needs for the economically developed regions, and propose regional development patterns to maintain the rapid industrialization and urbanization, spatial organization, as well as resources and environmental protection system; enrich the establishment of regional planning system with Chinese characteristics and regional characteristics, and improve the zoning techniques and methods by the regional spatial function; establish dynamic assessment model of regional sustainable development, and implement the monitoring and early warning of regional sustainable development trend; and, form an integrated development model and control programs for economically developed areas, and provide decision-making advisory services for regional coordination and sustainable development. Besides, we will enrich regional geography and sustainable development theory.
The main research directions of this research are: balanced urban and rural development, regional development and spatial coordination, resource carrying capacity and ecological and environmental capacity, sustainable development monitoring and assessment, land use / cover change, remote sensing monitoring of landscape and ecological pattern changes, and comprehensive integrated digital watershed and regional integration modeling, etc.
The existing laboratory has more than 20 fixed staff, including 7 research fellows, 7 associate senior engineers, 5 doctoral tutors, 2 professional who enjoy special government allowances, and 2 engineers selected for the "333" Engineering Talents Cultivation of Jiangsu Province. There are over 30 mobile staff with post-doctoral, doctoral or master degree currently. Related disciplines cover natural geography, human geography, natural resources science, landscape ecology, urban and regional planning science, etc. In recent years, the lab has made considerable progress on personnel training and team organization, basically having set up 2 innovative research teams with knowledge and age structure constantly optimized, rational disciplinary layout and full vigor: first, resource utilization and eco-environmental protection team, with academic leaders, including YANG Guishan, Chen Shuang, GAO Junfeng and Li Hengpeng, and main research personnel, including Xu Pengzhu, Wan Rongrong, Gao Qun, and Su Weizhong, etc.; second, urban and regional development team, with academic leaders, including Chen Wen, Cao Youhui and Zhang Luocheng, and main research personnel, such as Duan Xuejun, Chen Jianglong, Luo Xiaolong, Zhao Haixia, Wu Wei, Lyu Weiguo, Liang Shuangbo and so on.
Scientific Research Fruits
Since 2000, the laboratory has published 41 academic articles and conference papers, including SSCIs, SCIs, EIs and CSCDs, apart from monographs, won 1 second prize for and 2 third prizes of provincial-level scientific and technological progress, as well as 1 first prize and 1 second prize for Wu Chuanjun Human Geography. WITH THE SCIENTIFIC CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT TO GUIDE CHINA’S URBAN CONSTRUCTION compiled with our research fellows involved in has been specially instructed respectively by Li Keqiang, a standing committee member of the CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier, and Chen Zongxing, vice chairman of the CPPCC National Committee. In the course of the long-term research work, the laboratory is gradually taking shape of regional geography research results with our unique characteristics, which are is interactive with:
a) Effects of resource and environment patterns
Through analyzing the evolution of resources and environment and their spatial effects, discuss the mechanism of interaction between people and land and guidance and restraint on human activities.
b) Regional economic and development planning
In combination with economic and social development needs, implement functional zoning and essential collocation, and form a relatively complete regional planning system.
Division of Geographic Information Science
In August 1940, China Institute of Geography was established in Chongqing, with two sections set up - Geodetic Section and Cartography Office. In 1950, it was decided on establishing three teams, namely geography team, map team and geodesy team on the first meeting of the Preparatory Committee of the Institute of Geography, the Chinese Academy of Science. In 1958, the Institute of Geography, the Chinese Academy of Science was moved to Beijing. Nanjing Institute of Geography, the Chinese Academy of Science, was founded in Nanjing, with a map team set up in geography room. In 1975, Map Library was formally established. In 1987, part of the research fellows were separated from Map Library and formed Remote Sensing Laboratory, thus, a situation that Map Library run parallel to Remote Sensing Laboratory came into being. In 1997, in order to meet the needs of disciplinary development, Map Library and Remote Sensing Laboratory merged and formed Map & Remote Sensing Laboratory. In 2001, it was renamed to Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, which has been always adopted till now. Laboratory of Geographic Information Science has always followed the trend of disciplinary development, has kept application-oriented, has accorded with actual demands, has aimed at key scientific problems, and has made outstanding achievements. After its development for nearly 60 years and with tireless efforts of several generations of scientists, Laboratory of Geographic Information Science has developed into an integrated research and development base of remote sensing, geography information system and cartology.
The preparation of thematic map and atlas has achieved many important results during the academic development. In the regional research, through coordination with relevant research work, it has prepared a large number of maps and atlas, of which the most important ones include: Sichuan Economic Atlas, the first atlas compiled in 1946, Aerial Atlas of China’s Topography came out in 1950, Comprehensive Atlas of Jiangsu Province, the first large-scale integrated atlas compiled in 1958 and published in 1960, and a new version of Atlas of Jiangsu Province compiled in 1979, which has set a precedent in the preparation of the nationwide comprehensive regional atlas and won an award at Jiangsu Province Science Conference. In 1966, Agricultural Atlas of Jiangsu Province, the first thematic atlas in agriculture, was compiled, and it together with Integrated Agricultural Regionalization of Jiangsu Province were awarded at the National Science and Technology Conference in 1978. In 1999, National Agricultural Atlas of the People's Republic of China was published, and it won the second prize for national scientific and technological progress and the first prize for science and technological progress by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Cancer Atlas of the People’s Republic of China compiled and published in 1979 is China’s first atlas involving in medical geography, and won the First Prize for Class B Scientific and Technological Progress. In 2000, as associate chief editorial unit, it completed the Atlas of the Sustainable Development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and won the second prize for provincial-level scientific and technological progress, the excellent map award at the International Cartographic Conference and the first prize for mapping scientific and technological progress. Atlas of Resources Environment and Development of Jiangsu Province to be published will make a successful demonstration for the preparation of China’s new generation of comprehensive regional atlas, Chen Shupeng said.
In the lake - watershed research, since Atlas of the Fuxian Lake in Yunnan Province, the first atlas of lakes published in 1986, it gradually published Atlas of Natural Resources in the Taihu Lake Basin (in 1991), Atlas of the Poyang Lake (1993), Environmental Atlas of the Taihu Lake (in 1999) and Atlas of the Huai River Basin (in 1999). The Atlas of Lakes in China is still being compiled, and it will be published in 2010.
The remote sensing research of Laboratory of Geographic Information Science began with the Tengchong comprehensive aerial remote sensing survey led by Mr. Chen Shupeng in 1978. Later on, it has formed distinctive features in rice estimation using remote sensing data, land resources survey, land use / land cover, water quality and water environment remote sensing, etc. It won the first prize for scientific and technological progress by the Chinese Academy, the second prize for national scientific and technological progress and the second prize for scientific and technological progress of Jiangsu Province.
The research on geographic information system carried out by the Laboratory of Geographic Information Science began since Mr. Zhao Rui went to France to study in 1983. With great efforts, it completed many national-level research projects, such as regional development information system, satellite remote sensing decision-making advisory system of the Yangtze River Delta, integrated information system of national natural geographic environment, etc. Based on the supporting decision-making experimental study on China’s major lakes information system, it has set up the basic framework of China’s lake - watershed data sharing platform; and, it is constructing China’s lake - watershed database, and planning to construct a world lakes database at the same time.
At present, the laboratory totally has 11 innovative technicians, including 2 research fellows, 5 associate research fellows, 3 assistant research fellows and 1 research interns. In recent years, the laboratory has made rapid progress in undertaking major national research projects, high-level paper outputs and outcomes, award-winnings and other aspects. Within the next 5-10 years, the laboratory will focus on the research on theories and key technologies in three directions, namely water environment remote sensing, watershed hydrological remote sensing, as well as lake - watershed data-sharing, take the research on theories and key technologies in continental ecological factors remote sensing, spatial analysis GIS, etc. into account, properly develop remote sensing quantitative retrieval of quantitative remote sensing of atmospheric parameters, and give consideration to the technical studies on the design and compilation of modern thematic atlas.
The laboratory is responsible for the daily operation and services of the Institute of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems of Jiangsu Province and those of the Remote Sensing Center of Jiangsu Province.
Ma Ronghua was born in Dec. 1972, and he is doctor, research fellow and associate chief of the laboratory, director of China Association of Remote Sensing Application, deputy secretary-general of Jiangsu Institute of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems, executive director of Jiangsu Survey and Mapping Institute, and director of Jiangsu Information Institute. After graduated and received doctoral degree of cartology and geographical information system from Nanjing University in 2002, he entered into Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and continued to be engaged in the research on remote sensing application and GIS. In recent years, he has presided over or taken part in general and key programs of the National Natural Science Foundation, projects of the State 863 Program, special water projects, national science and technology-base projects and many other special topics at the state level, and he also presided over and participated in many cross-cutting projects. He has published over 60 academic articles (including more than 10 articles on SCI), has collaborated with others in 2 works (respectively as the first author and the second author) and has participated in publishing 3 works. Besides, he won the second and third prizes for scientific and technological progress of Jiangsu Province (respectively ranked at the second and fifth places).
Division of Lake Environment and Engineering
The division aims at scientific research on theories and approaches on the environment remediation for various types of lakes and the restoration of damaged ecological system; and the development of a series of remediation techniques and key technologies with self-owned intellectual rights in lake environment protection to achieve industrialization of water environment remediation. The Center Provides the common and key technologies for standard applications to the resolution of lake eutrophication , and restoration of water bodies and water quality improvement ; The Center also serves as a platform for the transformation of achievements in theory and technology to meet the urgent demand for lake environment remediation and to promote the development of lake protection industry.
Main functions and tasks:
n National base for innovation and demonstration of lake environmental engineering technology
n Policy-making consultation center for lake environment protection and remediation of state and local governments
n Consultation and service for the development of lake environment remediation industry and other related fields. Project assessment and analysis for construction and technology import of large environmental engineering.
n National base for training high-level technical personnel on lake environmental remediation and management
n International cooperation window for national lake science research and R&D of lake environmental engineering technology
Main tasks of the Center
Demonstration projects aiming at the ecological restoration and water quality improvement have been successfully implemented in the plateau lakes including Fuxianhu Lake of Yunnan Province and Hongfeng Lake of Guizhou, as well as some city lakes including Wuli Lake in Wuxi, Mochou Lake in Nanjing, Xihu Lake in Huizhou of Guangdong Province, Taihu Lake and its contributing rivers. The successful restoration of Wuli Lake riparian wetland, Constructed Wetlands for Pollution Control of surface runoff to Fuxianhu Lake Pioneering practice of water purification using special plants for polluted rivers in Suzhou City with notable achievements.